Do you know the past and present lives of lathes a

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Do you know the "past and present" of lathes and boring machines

Abstract: in the past 60 years since the founding of the people's Republic of China, under the care of the party and state leaders, China's machine tool industry has experienced several generations of hard work, from scratch, from scratch to large, and has undergone earth shaking changes. Now it has developed into an industry with reasonable product layout, complete categories and greater economic benefits

machine tool industry is an internationally recognized basic equipment manufacturing industry, a strategic industry, and the backbone industry of the national economy. Over the past 60 years since the founding of the people's Republic of China, under the care of the party and state leaders, China's machine tool industry has experienced several generations of hard work, from nothing to large, and has undergone earth shaking changes. Now it has developed into an industry with reasonable product layout, complete categories, and large mechanical experimental results. The key lies in whether the measurement signal is reliable and economic benefits. According to the compilation method of machine tool models in China, machine tools can be divided into 11 categories: lathes, drilling machines, boring machines, grinders, gear processing machines, thread processing machines, milling machines, planing and slotting machines, broaching machines, sawing machines and other machine tools. In each type of machine tool, it is divided into several groups according to the process scope, layout type and structural performance, and each group is divided into several series. But I believe that most people can't understand the development history of all machine tools. Today, let's talk about the historical story of lathes and boring machines

lathe is a machine tool that mainly uses turning tools to turn rotating workpieces. On the lathe, drill bits, reamers, taps, dies and knurling tools can also be used for corresponding processing. Lathes are mainly used to process shafts, discs, sleeves and other workpieces with rotating surfaces. They are the most widely used machine tools in machinery manufacturing and repair factories

1, "bow lathe" of ancient pulleys and bow rods. As early as ancient Egypt, people have invented the technology of turning wood with a knife when it rotates around its central axis. At first, people used two standing trees as supports to erect the wood to be turned, rolled the rope onto the wood using the elasticity of the branches, pulled the rope by hand or foot, rotated the wood, and cut it with a knife in hand

this ancient method gradually evolved and developed into a "bow lathe" in which two or three circles of rope were wound around the pulley, the rope was placed on an elastic rod bent into an bow, and the bow was pushed and pulled back and forth to rotate the processed object for turning

2 "pedal lathe" driven by crankshaft and flywheel in the middle ages. In the middle ages, someone designed a "pedal lathe" that used a pedal to rotate the crankshaft and drive the flywheel, and then transmitted to the spindle to make it rotate. In the middle of the 16th century, a French designer named Besson designed a lathe for turning screws that used screws to make the tool slide. Unfortunately, this kind of lathe was not popularized

3. Headboxes and chucks were born in the 18th century. In the 18th century, someone designed a lathe that uses the pedal and connecting rod to rotate the crankshaft, which can store the rotational kinetic energy on the flywheel, and developed from directly rotating the workpiece to rotating the headbox, which is a chuck used to hold the workpiece

4 in 1797, mozley, an Englishman, invented the epoch-making tool rest lathe, which is equipped with precision guide screws and interchangeable gears

mozley was born in 1771. At the age of 18, he was the right-hand man of inventor Brammer. It is said that Brammer used to do farm work. At the age of 16, his right ankle was disabled due to an accident, so he had to change to carpentry with low mobility. His first invention was the water closet in 1778. Mozli began to help Brammer design hydraulic presses and other machinery until he was 26, because Brammer rudely refused Mo's request to increase his salary to more than 30 shillings a week when he was operating a microcomputer

in the year when mozley left Brammer, he made the first screw lathe, which is an all metal lathe, with tool holder and tailstock that can move along two parallel guide rails. The guide surface of the guide rail is triangular, which drives the lead screw to make the tool holder move laterally when the spindle rotates. This is the main mechanism of modern lathes, which can be used to turn precision metal screws with any pitch

three years later, mozli built a more perfect lathe in his own workshop. The gears on it can be replaced with each other, and the feed speed and the pitch of the processed thread can be changed. In 1817, Roberts, another Englishman, adopted a four-stage pulley and back wheel mechanism to change the speed of the main shaft. Soon, larger lathes came out, which made great contributions to the invention of steam engine and other machinery

5. The birth of various special lathes in order to improve the degree of mechanization and automation, in 1845, Fitch of the United States invented the turret lathe; In 1848, the U.S. saw the appearance of the rotary lathe; In 1873, Spencer of the United States made a single axis automatic lathe, and soon he made a three axis automatic lathe; At the beginning of the 20th century, lathes with gear boxes driven by separate motors appeared. Due to the invention of high-speed tool steel and the application of motor, the lathe has been continuously improved, and finally reached the modern level of high speed and high precision

after the first World War, due to the needs of the arms, automobile and other machinery industries, various efficient automatic lathes and specialized lathes developed rapidly. In order to improve the productivity of small batch workpieces, lathes with hydraulic profiling devices were popularized in the late 1940s. At the same time, Multi Tool lathes were also developed. In the mid-1950s, program-controlled lathes with punch cards, latch plates, and dial plates were developed. Numerical control technology began to be used in lathes in the 1960s and developed rapidly after the 1970s

6. Lathes are divided into various types according to their uses and functions

the general lathe has a wide range of processing objects, and the adjustment range of spindle speed and feed rate is large. It can process the internal and external surfaces, end faces and internal and external threads of the workpiece. This kind of lathe is mainly manually operated by workers, with low production efficiency. It is suitable for single piece, small batch production and repair workshops

turret lathes and rotary lathes have turret tool holders or return wheel tool holders that can hold multiple tools, which can be used by workers to complete a variety of processes in turn with different tools in one clamping of workpieces, and are suitable for batch production

the automatic lathe can automatically complete the multi process processing of small and medium-sized workpieces according to a certain program, automatically load and unload materials, and repeatedly process a batch of the same workpieces, which is suitable for mass and mass production

Multi Tool semi-automatic lathes can be divided into single shaft, multi shaft, horizontal and vertical. The layout of the single shaft horizontal lathe is similar to that of the ordinary lathe, but the two sets of tool holders are respectively installed in the front and back of the spindle or above and below, which are used to process disc, ring and shaft workpieces, and their productivity is 3-5 times higher than that of the ordinary lathe

the profiling lathe can imitate the shape and size of the template or sample and automatically complete the processing cycle of the workpiece. It is suitable for the small batch and batch production of workpieces with complex shapes. The productivity is 10-15 times higher than that of the ordinary lathe. There are many types, such as multi tool rest, multi shaft, chuck type, vertical type, etc

the spindle of the vertical lathe is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the workpiece is clamped on the horizontal rotary workbench, and the tool rest moves on the beam or column. It is suitable for processing large, heavy workpieces that are difficult to install on an ordinary lathe. It is generally divided into single column and double column

while turning, the tool holder periodically makes radial reciprocating motion, which is used for forming the tooth surface of forklift milling cutters, hobs, etc. Usually with relief grinding accessories, a small grinding wheel driven by a separate motor is used to shovel and grind the tooth surface

special lathes are lathes used to process specific surfaces of certain types of workpieces, such as crankshaft lathes, camshaft lathes, wheel lathes, axle lathes, roll lathes, ingot lathes, etc

combined lathe is mainly used for turning, but after adding some special parts and accessories, it can also be used for boring, milling, drilling, inserting, grinding and other processing. It has the characteristics of "one machine with multiple functions", and is suitable for repair work on engineering vehicles, ships or mobile repair stations

Although the handicraft industry in the workshop is relatively backward, it has trained and created many technicians. Although they are not experts in manufacturing machines, they can manufacture all kinds of hand tools, such as knives, saws, needles, drills, cones, grinders, shafts, sleeves, gears, bedsteads, etc. in fact, machines are assembled from these parts

1. The earliest boring machine designer - Da Vinci boring machine is known as the "mother of machinery". Speaking of boring machines, we must first talk about Leonardo da Vinci. This legendary figure may be the designer of the boring machine first used for metal processing. The boring machine he designed is powered by water or pedal. The boring tool rotates close to the workpiece, and the workpiece is fixed on the mobile platform driven by the crane. In 1540, another painter painted a painting of pyrotechnics, which also had the same boring machine drawing. At that time, the boring machine was specially used for finishing hollow castings

2. The first boring machine was born for the processing of cannon barrels (Wilkinson, 1775). In the 17th century, due to the military needs, the cannon manufacturing industry developed very rapidly. How to manufacture the cannon barrel has become a major problem that people need to solve urgently

the first real boring machine in the world was invented by Wilkinson in 1775. In fact, to be exact, Wilkinson's boring machine is a drilling machine that can accurately process cannons. It is a hollow cylindrical boring bar, both ends of which are installed on bearings

In 1728, Wilkinson was born in the United States. At the age of 20, he moved to Staffordshire and built the first iron smelting furnace in billston. Therefore, Wilkinson is called "blacksmith master of Staffordshire". In 1775, Wilkinson, 47, made continuous efforts in his father's factory and finally manufactured this new machine that can drill cannon barrels with rare accuracy. Interestingly, after Wilkinson died in 1808, he was buried in a cast-iron coffin designed by himself

3. The boring machine has made an important contribution to Watt's steam engine. If there was no steam engine, the first wave of industrial revolution would not have appeared at that time. In addition to the necessary social opportunities, the technical preconditions for the development and application of the steam engine itself cannot be ignored, because manufacturing the parts of the steam engine is far from as easy as a carpenter cutting wood. It is necessary to make metal into some special shapes, and the processing accuracy requirements are high, which cannot be done without corresponding technical equipment. For example, when manufacturing the cylinder and piston of a steam engine, the accuracy of the outer diameter required in the piston manufacturing process can be measured from the outside while cutting, but it is not easy to use general processing methods to meet the accuracy requirements of the inner diameter of the cylinder

smitten was the best mechanic in the 18th century. Smitton designed as many as 43 waterwheel and windmill equipment. When making a steam engine, smitten's most troublesome task was to process cylinders. It is quite difficult to machine the inner circle of a large cylinder into a circle. For this reason, smitton made a special machine tool for cutting the inner circle of cylinder in the Karen iron factory. The boring machine driven by the water wheel is equipped with a cutter at the front end of its long shaft, which can rotate in the cylinder, so that it can be processed

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